The national parks and reserves of North Madagascar
* Analamerana Special Reserve
The Analamerana special reserve is situated in north-eastern Madagascar, south-east of the city of Antsiranana (Diego Suarez), and the Montagne d’Ámbre national park. The reserve is bordered by steep rocks in the north, by the Iloky river in the south, and by streams toward the Anivorano river in the west. The reserve encompasses 42000 Ha along the border of the eroded limestone plateau in between the Indian Ocean and the Ankarana-Analamerana massif with valleys and streams and includes part of the Bobakindro river, at 10-608 m altitude. The annual rainfall is about 1500 mm. The vegetation consists of dry woodland, forest, and some mangrove forest. Some target species are the all-black Propithecus perrieri (Perrier’s sifaka), Indri indri (Indri), Eulemur coronatus (Crowned Lemur), Microcebus tavaratra (Northern Rufous Mouse Lemur), Haliaeetus vociferoides (Madagascar Fish-eagle), Ardeola idae (Madagascar Pond-heron), Mesitornis variegata (White-breasted mesite), Xenopirostris damii (Van Dam's Vanga), Dalbergia pseudoviguieri (Analamera Rosewood), the endangered tree Hilsenbergia labatii, the shrub Cladogelonium madagascariense with its flattened greenish leaves for photo-synthese, and the rare tree Acacia baronii.
* Ankarana Special Reserve
The Ankarana special reserve is situated in north-western Madagascar, north of the town of Ambilobe, south-west of the city of Antsiranana (Diego Suarez), and some 12 km west of the Montagne d’Ambre national park. The reserve encompasses 18225 Ha with an adjacent zone of 48301 Ha across the 20 by 5 km long Ankarana-Analamerana massif. There are eroded limestone and basalt rock formations, canyons, some 160 km of caves and underground streams and pathways, at 50-409 m altitude. The annual rainfall is about 1500 mm. The vegetation consists of somewhat humid forest in the canyons, and dry scrubland (spiny thicket) and woodland on the eroded plains. Some target species are Avahi unicolor (Sambirano Woolly Lemur), Eulemur macaco macaco (Black Lemur), Lepilemur ankaranensis (Ankarana Sportive Lemur), Microcebus tavaratra (Northern Rufous Mouse Lemur), Mesitornis variegata (White-breasted mesite), Accipiter madagascariensis (Madagascar Sparrowhawk), Glossogobius ankaranensis, a blind goby fish from underground streams, Crocodylus niloticus (Nile Crocodile), Alluaudina mocquardi (Brown Snake), the primitive tree Asteropeia amblyocarpa (Haraka), the endangered Delonix velutina, Erythrophysa belinii, and the bizar plant Amorphophallus ankarana.
* Bora Special Reserve
The Bora special reserve is situated in north-western Madagascar, north-east of the city of Mahajanga, and south of the Ankarana special reserve. The reserve encompasses 4841 Ha across the southern part of a volcanic massif with limestone and sandy areas around the Loza river, at 100-411 m altitude. The annual rainfall is about 1500 mm. The vegetation consists of dry savanna plants, woodland, and forest. Some target species are Avahi occidentalis (Betsiboka Avahi), Propithecus coquereli (Coquerel's Sifaka), Daubentonia madagascariensis (Aye-aye), Accipiter henstii (Henst’s Goshawk), Accipiter madagascariensis (Madagascar Sparrowhawk), Buteo brachypterus brachypterus (Madagascar Buzzard), Crocodylus niloticus (Nile Crocodile), Acrantophis madagascariensis (Madagascar Ground Boa), Diospyros perrieri (Perrier Ebony Tree), and the parasitic tree Olax lanceolata with its partly greenish photosynthetic bark.
* Lokobe Strict Reserve
The Lokobe strict reserve is situated on the island of Nosy Be in north-western Madagascar. The reserve encompasses 740 Ha across a peninsula in the Southern part of the island, at 1-428 m altitude. The annual rainfall is about 2231 mm. The vegetation consists of humid vforest. Some target species are Eulemur macaco macaco (Black Lemur), Lepilemur tymerlachsoni (Hawks' Sportive Lemur), Microcebus lokobensis (Lokobe Mouse Lemur), Acrantophis madagascariensis (Madagascar Ground Boa), Euprepis lavarambo (Long-tailed Skink), Boophis jaegeri (Green Skeleton Frog), the endangered dark -brown treefroglet Platypelis milloti, the endangered feather palms Dypsis ampasindavae and Dypsis nossibensis (Nosy Be Feather Palm), and Dalbergia hildebrandtii (Hildebrant’s Rosewood).
* Manongarivo Special Reserve and Tsaratanana Strict Reserve
The Manongarivo special reserve is situated in north-western Madagascar, north-west of the Tsaratanana massif, east (and somewhat south) of the island of Nosy Be with the Lokobe strict reserve, and south-east of the Ankarana special reserve. The reserve encompasses 15480 Ha and includes the Antsatrotro peak at 1876 m altitude, and part of the Sambirano vally, which is an extension of eastern humid forests into the dry north-west of Madagascar, at 155-1876
The Tsaratanana strict reserve is located south of the town of Ambanja in north-western Madagascar. The reserve encompasses 48622 Ha across the highest mountain range in Madagascar, the Maromokotro mountain, and includes the headwaters of the Ramena, Sambirano, and Mahavavy rivers, at 227-2876 m altitude. The annual rainfall is about 2500 mm. The vegetation consists of humid forest in the low altitude areas, somewhat humid woodland and forest in high areas, and somewhat humid grassland and scrubland near the peaks of the mountains. Some target species are Daubentonia madagascariensis (Aye-aye), Microcebus sambiranensis (Sambirano Mouse Lemur), Phaner furcifer pallescens (Western Fork-crowned Dwarf Lemur), Microgale jobihely (Tsaratanana Small Round-eared Shrew Tenrec), Calumma guibei (Guibe’s Chameleon), Dalbergia tsaratananensis (Tsaratanana Rosewood), the screwpines Pandanus tazoanii and Pandanus tsaratananensis, and the climnbing bamboo Nastus tsaratananensis.
* Montagne d'Ambre
The Montagne d'Ambre national park is situated in the very north of Madagascar, south of the city of Antsiranana (Diego Suarez). The park encompasses 23000 Ha across an isolated extinct volcano with 4 crater lakes and 3 waterfalls at 850-1475 m altitude. The annual rainfall is about 3580 mm. The vegetation consists of somewhat humid and dry forest in the low altitude area around the mountain, and humid forest in higher areas. Some target species are Eulemur coronatus (Crowned Lemur), Eulemur sanfordi (Sanford's Brown Lemur), Lepilemur septentrionalis (Northern Sportive Lemur), Galidia elegans dambrensis (Northern Ring-tailed Mongoose), Haliaeetus vociferoides (Madagascar Fish-eagle), Nectarinia souimanga (Souimanga Sunbird), Neodrepanis hypoxanthus (Yellow-bellied Sunbird-asity), Euryceros sprevostii (Helmetbird), Calicalicus madagascariensis (Red-tailed Vanga), Brookesia ambreensis (Mount Amber Leaf Chameleon), Lygodactylus madagascariensis petteri (Ambre Dwarf Day Gecko), Uroplatus giganteus (Giant Leaf-tailed Gecko), Boophis blommersae (Blommers' Treefrog), Adansonia perrieri (Perrier’s Baobab), the rare liana Secamone marsupiata, and the rare Fern Tree Cyathea bellisqamata.